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Chemical properties of aerosol, trajectories and its impact on human’s lung cell during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran
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نویسندگان
1مرکز تحقیقات آلودگی هوا و بیماریهای تنفسی، دانشگاه جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز ، ایران
2مرکز تحقیقات آلودگی هوا و بیماریهای تنفسی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز ایران
چکیده
Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has a wide spectrum of adverse health effects. For many years, the Khuzestan Province in West southern Iran has been exposed to various ambient air pollutants the most important sources of which were known to be dust and industrial pollutants. Ahvaz, Iran ranks as the most polluted city in the world in terms of PM10 concentrations that lead to deleterious effects on its inhabitants. Reports on the effects of PM10 from dust storm on lung cells are limited. The main purpose of this study
was to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro toxicological impacts of PM10 suspensions, its
water-soluble fraction, and the solvent-extractable organics extracted from Middle Eastern Dust storms
on the human lung epithelial cell (A549). Samples of dust storms and normal days (PM10 < 200 µg m-3)
were collected from December 2012 until June 2013 in Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan Province in Iran.
The chemical composition and cytotoxicity were analyzed by ICP- OES, and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that PM10 suspensions, their water-soluble fraction and
solvent-extractable organics from both dust storm and normal days caused a decrease in the cell viability
and an increase in LDH in the supernatant in a dose-response manner. Although samples of normal days
showed higher cytotoxicity than those of dust storm at the highest treated dosage, T-Test showed no
significant difference in cytotoxicity between normal days and dust event days (P-value > 0.05). These
results led to the conclusions that dust storm PM10 as well as normal day PM10 could lead to cytotoxicity,
and the organic compounds (PAHs) and the insoluble particle-core might be the main contributors to
cytotoxicity. Our results showed that cytotoxicity and the risk of PM10 to the human lung may be more severe
during dust storm than normal days due to inhalation of a higher mass concentration of airborne particles. Further research on PM dangerous fractions and the most responsible components to make
cytotoxicity in exposed cells is recommended. The results of this study motivate more aggressive strategies in Ahvaz and similarly polluted desert cities to reduce the health effects of the enormous ambient aerosol concentrations.
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